History of the Earth and the predators that developed on it

Predating and developing

https://www.humorpolitico.com.br/?s=formatar+a+terra

A complete and detailed Earth History by stages and then by Geological Ages, see https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cronologia_da_evolu%C3%A7%C3%A3o_humana

Prey is necessary, it is our duty, our fate
But just to live, and we extrapolate.
In my post “Sometimes an everyday event and…” I did write “Why so much malice and harassment? Is this the purpose of the universe? Killing in order not to die may be necessary, ethically correct, at least acceptable in doubtful cases; killing more than necessary, killing needlessly, without meaning, killing for pleasure, is incomprehensible. However… that’s how the universe seems to act”.

According to the most recent studies, stars and galaxies began to form about 550 million years after the Big Bang, that is, 13.2 billion years ago.

30 million years before our star was born, or 5.2 billion years ago, a collapse inside the Milky Way expelled the matter that would come and contract and form our Sun; the formation of the entire solar system took 100 million years, starting at 4.9 billion years. Therefore, the beginning of the formation of the earth — usually considered to be 4.9 billion years after the Big Bang — in reality, must have occurred soon after (Earth is the third planet in the solar system), for preciosity let’s say that the 4, 85 to 4.80 billion years, when millions of tons of dust and debris heated to about 12,000 °C spread by the Sun’s birth, by gravity gathered, thickened, warmed more.

So at its birth, it was a mass of boiling magma, a soup in which there were some of the inert chemicals, hydrogen, helium, beryl and lithium.

The atmosphere consisted only of carbon, nitrogen and water vapour.

Tea Impact

Around its 370 million years old (4.540 billion years after the Big Bang), external temperature cooling when the Earth had already differentiated core and an incipient mantle, a young planet, called Theia or Téa[1] (of the size of Mars today), displaced from its equilibrium position at one of the “Lagrange points”[2] by its increase in size and mass, fell at a speed of 40,000 kilometers per hour (twenty times the speed of a revolver bullet ) to Earth, in an oblique angle collision.

The oblique impact caused the molten bolide to increase its rotation speed vertiginously; the surroundings were an atmosphere of vaporized rock at 4,000 °C, and about 2% of Téa’s mass formed a disk of debris, half of which contracted to form the Moon, then 22,000 kilometres from Earth, in contrast to the fences. of 400,000 today. The rest has broken up into trillions of rocks and dust, which will return to Earth-like meteors.

The day of this boiling mass was only 5 hours [3].

The gravitation between Earth and Moon slowed both planets, gradually moving away.

[1] The choice of the name “Theia” has its origins in Greek mythology, since Theia or Tea was the mother Titanide of the moon goddess Selene.

[2] https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hip%C3%B3tese_do_grande_impact

[3] It is possible, according to various simulations, that two satellites were formed at a distance of 20,000 kilometres from Earth. However, the inner moon would end up colliding with our planet again or colliding with the other one thousand years after its formation. This last hypothesis would explain the difference between the visible face of the Moon and the hidden one, proposing that the second moon had a diameter of approximately 1,200 kilometres — larger than the dwarf planet Ceres — and that it would be in one of the Lagrange Points of the Moon’s orbit in which it would remain for millions of years until its orbit was destabilized to end up colliding with the largest of the moons on what is now the hidden side. This collision would have occurred at a relatively low velocity (2–3 km/s), so the impacting object would not have formed a crater, but after the impact, its destruction would have covered the other side of the Moon.

1.5 billion years ago in its history (3 billion from birth) the tremendous heat from the core breaks up the soft, fragile crust into tectonic plates and moves them across the surface. More thousands of years the surface temperature is over 80°C and the crust separates into plates that in another 400 million years will join together forming the supercontinent called Pangea, bathed by a unique ocean Panthalassa. A desolate surface, similar to the Mars we know, where the surface temperature has dropped to around 30°C and the day is now 18 hours old.

Moving forward in time, to 750 million years ago, the crust fragmenting year by year, the supercontinent splits in two giving rise to two mega continents: Gondwana and Laurasia, separated by the Sea of ​​Tethys.

The intense activity caused volcanoes to sprout across the continent; in the atmosphere, there is CO², smoke and gas everywhere, as well as methane and little oxygen. Carbon dioxide reacting with water formed carbonic acid (H²O + CO² → H²CO³) and acid rain fell over the world; rocks absorb carbon in the form of ferrites, and there is no surface CO2 to block the sun’s heat.

See the animation showing the evolution of continents at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DuSWnmJ3BHY

There is some confusion between Pangea and Gondwana: In various documents and passages Gondwana is spoken of as if it were a single continent; but Gondwana is the mega-continent south of Pangea, while when you say “the other side of Gondwana” you should say Laurasia.

And… A few thousand years and the Earth’s surface was at -50°C!

The explanations for the precipitous drop in temperature are still controversial, but the evidence is unmistakable: around 650 million years ago, the Earth was almost completely covered by a thick layer of ice 3 kilometres thick; there were two layers, one starting at the north pole and the other at the south pole, that moved towards each other and almost met at the equator. This long glaciation period was called “Snowball Planet”.

This period lasted between 60 to 80 million years.

The surface was frozen, but the core was (and remains) active and boiling. During this period, ice pushed the crust down; now the crust rises again, which causes more breaking points, and more and more volcanoes release billions of tons of CO² into the atmosphere; the temperature rises higher and higher.

While the planet was frozen, the sun’s ultraviolet rays produced a reaction in the water molecules, turning them into hydrogen peroxide (H²O²), the same hydrogen peroxide we buy in pharmacies; the ice melts and the hydrogen peroxide breaks down and releases more oxygen into the atmosphere.

Now, 600 million years ago, the atmosphere is warmer, like a current summer day, and the days last 22 hours.

And primitive life was not dead!

Before Snowball Earth, the last time we saw primitive life was in the seas; it looks like they survived, and with plenty of oxygen, bacteria evolved, and there are plants everywhere in the oceans, and a few more things… Multicellular organisms.

This is what is called the Ediacaran Biota.

DickinsoniaCostata

A DickinsoniaCostata

Tribrachideum

A Tribrachideum

The abundance of oxygen then allows the creatures to grow and develop bony skeletons.

Species with exoskeletons appear

Trilobite

Here a trilobite

Anomalocaris

And the predator Anomalocaris (centre)

The first arthropods

375 million years ago you see creatures in the water, moving, swimming; they are the first tetrapods, some that crawl out of the water.

360 million years and another important milestone in evolution.

The moss-covered woods have given rise to giant ferns, which look like trees; and the fern spores also evolved to develop a kind of internal store with nutrients, starch and an impermeable covering: the seeds were born that fly and spread the vegetation all over the planet.

By perfecting their attack mechanisms and tactics, they refined their means of locomotion and prey detection; They got so excited that they created monsters that killed plants and monsters, monsters that killed herbivores and carnivores.

Meganeura

A dragonfly, for example, has grown and vastly expanded its hunting territory.

Arthropods, the first to step on and develop on dry land, existed for millions of years, like some insects today, but then with a huge difference: like Meganeura, these creatures are monsters.

And if there is life, there is also death; thousands of years of vegetables and animal corpses accumulate at the bottom of the oceans; the pressure of the layers of rock that will cover them and the heat of the core will produce the oil and gas deposits that will be made the second greatest transformation and success of mankind in the still distant future.

Escudossaurus

Shieldsaurus,

Gorgonoccideous

vegetarians related to today’s turtles, and murderous monsters like the Gorgonoccid

A Gorgnoccid mortally wounded the Shieldsaurus

But it didn’t actually eat the prey: suddenly the ground began to heat up violently, lava flows not only from a single point or volcano, but the entire crust is immersed in basalt lava.

All dead!

On the north side of Pangea — in Laurasia — nothing seems to happen… behold, everything is covered with snow… No! They are ashes from eruptions that took place 16 thousand kilometres away. That burn and shatter everything that existed.

Sulfur dioxide combines with water, turns into sulfuric acid which burns up what’s left.

The Great Extinction at the End of the Permian is estimated to have wiped out 96% of all marine species. 4% of marine life lives close to hot springs, in areas where the ice layer is thinner, feeding on whatever it finds. The same happens with the small multicellular creatures that, on earth, already lived underground or were lucky enough to be buried by rocks and earth pushed by lava.

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Flavio Musa de Freitas Guimarães

Already watching the eighty-seventh turn of the Earth in curtsy around its King, I’m an engineer that became a writer, happy, in perfect health, body and mind.